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The Government of India constituted a committee named as China Study Group(CSG) in 1997 after large scale transportation and strategic construction project started by china along northern and eastern frontier. The committee had to suggest the requirement of transport communication in border area. if China aggressive, then troop deployment can be as soon as possible and easy movements of troops in case of two face war. 

After the study, CGS identified the network of 73 Roads called India China Border Roads(ICBR). The Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) in 1999 approved project and gave the work of construction of 73 roads to BRO. In first phase of ICBR(73 roads) construction deadline was 2006 but later it was extended to 2012 and total length of these roads are 4000 km but it is not completed till date.
Data released by Defense Ministry till march 2016 only 30% construction completed of border road projects so government decided to complete Phase-I before March,2020, in which 75% projects of BRO completed till Feb,2019. Govt decided to boost all other LAC and LOC roads project so Govt tripled annually budget for Border roads projects from 4500 crore(2016) to 11,800 crore in 2020-21 year. 
In 2018 Ministry of Defense submitted report for requirements of 852 roads of total length 30120 km includes ICBR Phase I and II roads. In ICBR phase II aims to construct total 32 roads along the Chinese border.
Central Public Works Department(CPWD) prepared and released annual report(2018-19), In this report agency has been asked to construct 44 "strategically located" roads along the India-China border. It will be constructed at the cost of nearly Rs 21000 crore to ensure quick mobilization of troops in case of conflict.
"The CPWD has been entrusted with construction of 44 strategically important roads along the Indo-china border spanning 5 states of J&K, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh" the report stated.
Whereas over 2100 km of axial and lateral roads in Punjab and Rajasthan to respond Pakistan in case of two front war. it will be built in cost of Rs 5400 crore along the Indo-Pakistan border.

Some major highways and Tunnel projects which are completed or under construction-

1. Darbuk-Shayok-Dault Beg Oldie(DS-DBO) Highway- The 255-km long road from Darbuk traverses at an altitude of 14000 feet and reaches Shyok, the last Indian village in the region. where Darbik and Shyok are villages in Leh district(Ladakh-UT) and the Dault Beg Oldie lies near the easternmost point of the Karakoram Range(DBO just 10 km-Air distance far from Karakoram Pass) in a cold desert region in the far north of India, just 8 km south of the Indo-China border.Other than Siachen glacier military bases, it is India's northernmost settlement.This road direct connect the Siacchin Glacier from another regions and eases the way to Galvan Vally so importance of this road become high in the perspective of Indian military. through branches of this road military can easily reach to the Galwan vally. because of it china continuously trying to threaten India.

2. Manali-Leh Highway- This highway Designed, built and maintained by BRO.It's built for transportation of heavy military vehicle. It's connect Manali(Himachal Pradesh) and Leh( Ladakh). total length of this highway is around 480 km with 13000 feet average elevation and it's passes through Taglang Laa mountain (where it's have highest elevation approx 17500 feet). After that, this highway connects to the DS-DBO road from Leh.

3. Dharchula-Lipulekh Pass Road- Lipulekh pass is located at the end of Kalapani and Kali river. it near to tri-junction of India-Nepal-Tibet so Strategically importance of this place become more for India and Nepal. BRO constructed double line 76 km long road at 17000+ elevation and remaining 4-km will be completed till end of the year. This road also use by Kalesh and Mansarovar tourist to enter Tibetian region. The Lipulekh pass has always been part of the India and that is why China accepted it as India's territory but present Nepali government claiming on it.

4. Joram-Kolariang Road- This road built for providing support in building Arunachal frontier Mega-Highway (Mago-Thingbu-Vijaynagar Border Highway) like supplying building materials and easy transportation for construction vehicle. It's approx 20 km long road which connect Mago-Thingbu-Vijaynagar Border Highway to centre of Arunachal pradesh. This highway project planned (plan purposed in 2018) in Arunachal Pradesh and its 2000 km long highway which follow the McMahon line (India-China border line in Arunachal Pradesh). It will provide easy access to heavy military vehicle to Border line and easy mobilization of troops in war situation.

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