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DEFENCE NEWS- WHAT IS NECKLACE OF DIAMONDS STRATEGY ?

INDIA'S RESPONSE TO "STRING OF PEARLS" STRATEGY

In past few years China trying to restrain India through increasing military power in Indo-pacific region. China capturing naval bases & port of strategically located nations around India by debt trap policy. China called it "one belt & one road for enhancing business and strategic relation with rest of world" but ultimate target through creating a ring of strategic places give energy threat to India and Isolate India by block all transportation routes.
Pakistan, Iran, Myanmar, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Somalia are China's major pawns for encircle India. This Chinese strategy named 'string of pearls' by diplomats.
Over the years China increasing military bases and maritime presence in South China Sea, Indo Pacific  and Sea of Japan region also built many artificial island. It's a very serious concern for India and it's allies.

Image-Strategic locations of 'String of pearls' and 'Necklace of diamonds'

India has started working aims to counter 'string of pearls' as well as garlanding china by consistently improving relations with strategically located countries like Indonesia, Singapore, Japan, Seychelles, Oman. Via this approach India expanding naval bases and Increasing defense exercise with world's top military powers.

India's strategic bases in abroad:

1Changi Naval Base, Singapore- In 2018, PM Modi signed the India-Singapore bilateral agreement for Navy Co-operations. It's provides direct access to Indian navy for refueling, logistics support, ships & submarine docking while sailing in south china sea. Changi port very close to Strait of Malacca which is most busiest shipping lanes and primary shipping lane between Indian and Pacific Ocean.
80% oil supply of china passes through Malacca strait so this is a point of concern for China.
2. Sabang port, Indonesia- In 2018 India got military access for this port. It's located near to entrance point of Malacca strait, which is busiest choke point in the world. India's presence at this location a energy threat for China.
3. Chabahar port, Iran- In 2016 Indian govt signed deal for construct this port. Chabahar port have significant role in trade to middle east Asia and central Asia through Afghanistan.
India can minimize importance of Chinese operated Gwadar port by operationalising Chabahar port located in gulf of Oman which gave direct access to Persian gulf.
4. Duqm port, Oman- This port located right between Gwadar port(Pak) and Djibouti port(Somalia). Through this port India is trying to minimize Chinese dominance in African countries. China invest $70 billion in African countries which exceed India's investment in African countries. 
5.The Assumption Island, Seychelles - Indian govt and Seychelles govt agreed on development of Naval base in this region to countering Chinese silk maritime route. India got military access to this naval base. This base also have strategic importance because Chinese govt fully desperate for increasing political influence and military presence in African countries.

Apart from Developing new military bases, India improving strategic tie-up with nations in Chinese periphery like Mongolia, Vietnam, Japan, Taiwan, Bhutan.

  • PM Modi was first Indian PM who visited Mongolia. Both govt agreed to collaborate for develop bilateral airline using  India's credit line loan.
  • India selling BrahMos missile to Vietnam and Indonesia for counter china in south china sea.
  • India and Japan agreed to work jointly on Asia Africa Growth Corridor(AAGC), it will provide countries an alternative of "Belt and road initiative"(BRI).

Challenges for India-

1.No country want to get into a cold war with china in present situation as china supplies essential pharmaceutical products and API to whole world.
2.India's largest investment in Necklace of diamond project is $8 billion on Chabahar port when china invest $400 billion in Iran alone under BRI project.
3. Almost all nations directly or indirectly depends on Chinese import and investment for their growth that's why they may not able to effective support to India.
4.Iran has finally decided to proceed Chabahar railway project itself because India waited 4 years for relaxation from US and halt the funding for it's committed project. (after US imposed sanction on Iran)
5.India's allies not able to oppose china 100% because their economy interdependent on china but china's allies are getting more stronger.
6.In corona pandemic period Indian economy vulnerable, downfall in economic growth & employment where china grabbing neighbor's territories and going on new territorial dispute by following salami slicing method.

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